Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec is most famous for his paintings and posters of the nightlife in the Moulin Rouge, Paris
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Biography
Toulouse – Lautrec was born into the aristocracy on November 24, 1864, in Albi, France. His parents were first cousins and are said to be descendants from previous instances of family inbreeding. As such Toulouse-Lautrec and his cousins suffered related congenital health conditions.
Because of his fragile health condition, his femurs fractured when he was a young teenager and the breaks never properly healed.
For this reason, Toulouse-Lautrec’s growth stunted and he only reached a height of 41/2 feet. His abnormal body had a full-length torso but very shortened legs. As a result, he needed to walk with the assistance of a walking cane. If this wasn’t enough, he endured painful toothaches and facial deformities as well.
Today, it is thought that Toulouse-Lautrec suffered from a rare disorder called pycnodysostosis — also nicknamed the Toulouse-Lautrec Syndrome.
The influence of the Impressionism Art Movement
As an art student, Toulouse-Lautrec saw the seventh exhibition of the Impressionist artists in 1882 and loved their new ideas of ‘unfinished’ canvases and use of colors.
He began to try out their ideas, adopting modern subject matter, a lighter palette and feathery brushstrokes. While he did attempt to work outdoors, Toulouse-Lautrec made fun at the technique plein-air painting by saying:
“The country is so raw and chilly that it would be absolutely impossible to install a nude model on the grass”
Therefore, although influenced by the Impressionists, he felt no appeal to paint landscapes and capture the changing light appearance.
Japanese ukiyo-e woodblock printmaking influenced his style as well as artist and impressionist, Edgar Degas,who lived nearby.
Life in Bohemian Montmartre
In 1884, Toulouse-Lautrec moved to Montmartre in Paris, known for its bohemian life. This neighborhood had many ‘undesirable’ nightclubs, cabaret clubs, bars and brothels that attracted many Parisians from all over.
Over time, Toulouse-Lautrec built a solid reputation with his artworks of regular Montmartre citizens and celebrities. Today he is most well-known for his paintings and posters portraying the night life in the famous nightclub – The Moulin Rouge, Paris.
He mostly painted the marginalized populations, including prostitutes, as he himself felt marginalized.
Toulouse-Lautrec created works on canvas yet also chose to display his work in the more popular medium of posters. He became highly sought after and famous for his unique style.
The Influence of Ukiyo-e Japanese Woodblock Prints
Around the 1850s, the Europeans were gaining access to Oriental culture, philosophies and arts. In particular, Japanese woodblock prints, also known as Ukiyo-e were very popular. The Impressionist and post-impressionist painters studied these prints and incorporated many of the features of Japanese woodblock prints into their own prints and paintings.
Toulouse-Lautrec totally embraced the exaggerated colors and facial expressions found in ukiyo-e Japanese woodblock prints in order to create his popular and striking posters. Below are some examples of his Japonisme style.
Dealing with his Disability
Although presenting himself as witty and fun, Toulouse-Lautrec suffered greatly due to his physical ailments. He also contracted syphilis, which further impacted his health.
For most of his adult life, Toulouse-Lautrec turned to alcohol to deal with his pain and emotional suffering. He would ultimately drink himself into oblivion.
He had a nervous breakdown in 1899 after his mother died as he was very close to her. Afterwards, he committed himself into a sanitarium for several months.
Toulouse-Lautrec’s Artistic Legacy
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec died on September 9, 1901 in Chateau Malrome in Saint-André-du-Bois at 36 years of age. Incredibly, he left behind more than 700 canvas paintings, 350 prints and posters and 5,000 drawings.
Museums in France to see Toulouse-Lautrec’s paintings
- The Musée Toulouse-Lautrec in Albi houses which showcases over 1,000 of his works
- Musee D’Orsay in Paris and
- Marmottan Museum in Montmartre
- And of course you will find his paintings in most major art galleries all over the world.
Toulouse-Lautrec the Chef
Rather less well known is that in addition to being a brilliant artist, Lautrec was also an inventive chef. In the published book, The Art of Cuisine, you can find the amazing collection of his recipes. This book, published decades after his death, also provides many insights into his life and Paris in those times.
A fun fact about Toulouse- Lautrec
Toulouse-Lautrec was an alcoholic. He started drinking beer, and then graduated to wine and then to hard liquors, especially the potent liquor absinthe. In fact, it is said that the cocktail “Earthquake” is attributed to Toulouse- Lautrec.
Recipe – Half absinthe, Half cognac. Are you brave enough to give this a try??